The William and Mary style, also known as early Baroque in museum circles, of antique furniture dates from about 1690 through the mid-1720s. It is named for the king and queen who reigned together over England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1689-1694.
This style is an American variation of the Baroque style popular in Europe earlier in the 1600s, according to American Furniture by Marvin D. Schwartz. It is known to have Flemish, Dutch, French and Chinese influences.
The dovetailing technique for joining furniture pieces together was gaining momentum during this period and afforded lighter construction and innovation in furniture making. William and Mary style pieces filled a demand for furniture providing both comfort and luxury at end of the 17th century. According to The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Web site, this style never achieved widespread popularity in the colonies outside of major port cities.
William and Mary elements and techniques often blended with Queen Anne styling as furniture continued to evolve in colonial America.
William and Mary Style Legs and Feet:
Leg styles gracing William and Mary pieces were boldly turned, which means they were fashioned with chisels or other tools while being spun on a lathe. The elegance of the earlier Baroque period was recreated as seen in the Flemish scroll leg, spiral, trumpet and columnar leg shapes used on this type of furniture.
Woods Used in William and Mary Style Pieces:
Painted and lacquered finishes (in the Chinese style) were common, with walnut and maple readily used. Pine, cedar and some oak can be found in these pieces as well. Veneers, or thin sheets of wood, in varied colors and textures, were used to decorate the fronts of cabinets and desks. It is not uncommon to find that varied wood solids and veneers were used in combination to create one William and Mary style piece.
William and Mary Style Chairs and Tables:
Chair designs were thinner than previous styles with high backs and lavish embellishments. Side chairs were most common, but some armchairs were made as well. Chair seats were usually made of cane or rush, or upholstered in cushioned leather. Wing chairs, also known as easy chairs at this time, and daybeds that were actually chairs with extended seats were also introduced during this era.
Small tables designed for form and function were new to this era as well, such as tea tables and dressing tables. Gate-leg tables were the most popular and made in varied sizes for varied purposes. The butterfly table also came into favor during this era with the tavern table being one variation.